Generally speaking, all non-EU foreign nationals require visas for stays in Germany. A visa is not required for semi-annual visits of up to three months for nationals of those countries for which the European Community has abolished the visa requirement.
The Federal Republic of Germany's embassies and consulate-generals abroad are responsible for issuing visas. The applicant must apply in person at the consulate or embassy in his or her region, and the application must include all necessary documents.
Typically, the consulates and embassies require between two and ten days to make a decision on an application for a short stay. For a visa for a longer period or in order to begin employment, the application often takes months.
(Source: Federal Foreign Ministry)